Introduction to Bone Graft

The knowledge that we have developed in the science of dental implantology has grown tremendously in the past couple of decades, and bone grafting has developed into an integral part of it, allowing dentists to develop procedures and achieve outcomes that would not have been possible without grafting.

Bone grafting is utilized routinely in day to day procedures such as ridge preservation after tooth extraction, ridge augmentation, guided tissue regeneration in periodontal defects, ridge repair of ailing or failed implants, sinus augmentation procedures, and repair and reconstruction after surgical resection in the treatment of neoplasms.
For the average dentist, bone grafting is used most commonly in ridge preservation after extractions and associated with implant placement.
A basic understanding of the available bone grafting materials , their similarities, their differences and how they work will allow the dentist to select the best dental supplies  for a particular situation, since they all have their advantages and disadvantages.
With the promotion of bone graft in clinical and research, people realized that bone graft material should meet the following requirements: 
① good biocompatibility; 
② induction with bone or bone lead role; 
③ allogeneic or xenogeneic bone should not cause cross-infection; 
④ to restore the normal bone defect morphology and function; 
⑤ does not affect the new bone and dental implantment between the bone; 
⑥ revascularization can occur quickly, and promote bone healing; 
⑦ bone graft and new bone absorption rate of the rate of bone harmony, or bone graft material to absorb too quickly, will result in poor bone.
Viewing bone formation after autogenous bone graft, bone graft survival of osteoblasts and the induction of BMP functions combined together to complete the new bone formation, this theory can not explain the allograft or xenograft bone graft healing and new bone formation by dental handpiece.
Bone conduction theory that free bone grafts after implantation, bone cells and bone can not be survived, transplanted bone calcium bracket to guide the host to which the growth of osteoblasts, the bone eventually new bone graft substitute. 
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