Root canal is a dental procedure which helps in removing the entire internal parts, mainly pulp chamber of the tooth. Its purpose is to save teeth that have been so badly damaged by decay, fracture, abscess, etc.
Root canal therapy is used to treat and save a tooth that has become badly damaged or infected due to trauma, injury or decay. The nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth, where the infection occurs, is cleansed and sealed. Within the root canal are the important vital structures, called pulp, which keep the tooth healthy by supplying moisture to the tooth to keep it flexible and a nutrient blood supply that can deliver reparative elements internally to the tooth to keep it healthy.
Years ago when a tooth used to start hurting, or a swelling around it was noticed, the only way out to get relief, was to get rid of them tooth. So dentists used to extract the tooth in question. This procedure is done and advised only when the tooth can not compensate restoring material in a small cavity on the surface.
The goal of root canal therapy is to improve the health of our damaged tooth. During treatment, the pulp is removed from our root canals through a small opening in the crown. When an injury inside the root canal occurs, the pulp can become damaged or irritated. When that happens, it can lead to infection or pain. When the canal has been thoroughly disinfected and cleaned, it then it is filled with a root canal filler, usually a dental material called Gutta Tercha.
After the canals have been filled, the tooth is covered by a crown. This protects the now fragile tooth from fracture. It is important that the crown be placed soon after the root canal is finished otherwise once the tooth fractures, saving the tooth becomes near impossible. Though most people prefer to avoid thinking of it, this type of treatment is often necessary. The treatment is not nearly as painful as most people imagine. A root canal is performed when the tooth's nerve tissue is already dead.